Bibliography Texts

Filiate Science Antrorse

Don Harrsch

This page is a transcription of the 10-page typed brochure describing the author's colonization project. Minor corrections to spelling and punctuation have been made for clarity, but no other changes have been made to the original manuscript. The illustration is from the first page of the brochure. A horizontal rule indicates a page break in the original.

The above named company is being formed under Ecuadorian law, and will be permanently located in the Galapagos Islands. It seems only right that a colony of scientific philosophists be located where Charles Darwin arrived at his theory of evolution. There is no need for anyone to give up their American heritage to participate in this venture.

Philosophy and Intents

This company has been formed chiefly for one reason—Science—to promote a better understanding of science, education and research in the philosophy of science.

The Galapagos Islands were chosen for the main reason that from our research, it seems they will bring in more income that any other available site. A large income must be made by our company if we expect to spend a substantial amount on science and still maintain an American standard of living.

Happiness comes easiest to those few people with goals ahead, or a man working for a cause who is making visible progress.

We are a dedicated people, dedicated to science, and we know where we are going. It is believed that the Galapagos are going to help us achieve our goals. Many people may say that we are unselfish and a bit stupid to spend our own money and time on scientific education and research with no material reward forthcoming. THIS IS NOT SO! We are very selfish. But we seek to combine our own welfare with the larger welfare of mankind. We seek better ways of life for all men through scientific research which will also bring us its many benefits. We are all in this world together, and like it or not people must, if they wish to remain free, help in whatever way then can to educate their kind. Even more if we wish to keep the world intact for future generations.

Our intentions are not to start an education reform around the world which involves religious and political beliefs. Our hopes are only to show from our group how tolerance wrought from education allows each individual their own beliefs and compatibility with the rest of the world. We hope to show that a pioneer colonizing group dedicated to furthering scientific research can succeed with this motivation replacing the religious or political motivations of many such new colonies in the past.

Some might wonder how the biological laboratory fits in with our philosophy. If we wish to know more about people, why not study sociology and psychology? The biological laboratory work will give us an insight into the chemical and biological makeup of animals, and pursuing this work will give us much insight into the makeup of a human organization. One cannot disconnect sociology, psychology, and biology and expect to come up with the correct answers. That yields only part of the picture. However, when one gets an answer from combining biology with the social sciences, one must humbly say, it took a lot of hard work. After all none of the pieces were misssing.

The people accepted in our group must be in full sympathy with the philosophy outlined above. They must not fool themselves into thinking they are escaping into a garden of eden. They shall all toil as most of us have never toiled before, and will have to tolerate things we had thought to be intolerable. But the rewards can be great. If nothing else we can say we have conquered the unconquerable, and tamed the untamable. We shall seem alone and uncovered by the blanket of civilization. But not truly alone, for we will have all the help of scientific knowledge, equipment, and the help of the Ecuadorian Government, which will be considerable.

The Galapagos Islands

The Galapagos Islands are solely of volcanic origin. It is said that over 2,000 volcanoes exist in the archipelago. A live one is listed on one of the smaller islands. The islands lie almost 600 miles off the coast of Ecuador, right on the equator. However the Humboldt Current, sometimes known as the Peruvian Current, flows through the islands in a northwesterly direction. Strong and adverse currents prevail making navigation extremely hazardous. This current brings with it cold water from the Antarctic. About 60-degree water temperature is prevalent around the islands except where the current does not flow. On the west side of Isabela there are places where the water temperature is as high as 80 degrees. This cold Antarctic water flow brings with it an abundance of plankton, fish and birds that could normally be only in the Arctic regions.

This current accounts for the abundance of sea life and more important, it drops the temperature of the land air to between 70 and 80 degrees the year around. This current also accounts for the lack of rainfall in the lowlands. The ocean must be heated to many degrees before evection [sic, convection] can take place. In the uplands however, from 800 feet elevation and up, a heavy dew falls almost constantly. The higher one goes the heavier this dew becomes.

The rainy season comes between February and June. During that time the lowland gets rain, however rainless years have been known. To anyone who is unfamiliar with tropical rainfall, it comes down in buckets. Rain in the uplands however is almost constant at least in the form of heavy dew. About four inches is estimated a year though no records have been kept.

There are six main islands in the archipelago, about three million acres in all. Isabela Island has about a million and a half of that. Santa Cruz, Isabela, and San Cristobal are the most important agriculturally.

San Cristobal has a population of about 800 and the highest elevation is 2,500 feet. A hospital, school and Government agents can be found here.

Santa Cruz Elevation 3,000 feet, population of 150. Santa Cruz is the most beautiful of all the islands. The vegetation extends almost to the sea and the island abounds with fresh fruit for the picking.

Isabela The island of our choice is 72 miles long and the equator crosses through it at the north end, which is the narrow part. The south end of the island is about 45 by 22 miles. There are six large craters on the island and they extend to a height of almost 6,000 feet. In the uplands of this island is to be found the heaviest soil. The soil of these islands is a rich red loam, almost stoneless and extremely fertile. Vegetation is heaviest on all the islands on the southern slopes due to the prevailing winds which blow at breeze force almost constantly from the southwest.

Mangroves, cactus, and scraggy bushes are sparsely scattered about the lowlands, but above 800 feet forests and grasslands are to be found. Coffee, citrus trees, papaya, avocado, etc. grow wild there now. As everywhere there are insects and snakes, but none of the poisonous variety. In all the accounts on the islands we can find, which there are many, there is no trace of malaria, yellow fever or other tropical diseases in the islands. The Humboldt Current probably accounts for the lack of these diseases.

The Galapagos are almost entirely responsible for Darwin's theory of evolution. The animals and birds found here can be found nowhere else on earth, and their evolution is evident in the difference of the species from island to island. The Galapagos turtle which the islands were named after grow to 500 pounds and as many years. About 21 species were in evidence when Darwin was there, but today there are only eight.

Two types of iguana, one marine and one land, are also abundant. The iguana is a prehistoric-looking lizard, brightly colored, which gets to be three feet long and will weigh twenty pounds.

Some snakes, land crabs, sea lions and all kinds of birds are well represented here; even the penguin and flamingo. None of the birds or animals have learned to fear man and a gun is not needed to go hunting, a stick will do as well.

There is nothing on the islands that is dangerous to man except the wild dogs. The dogs are of the domestic variety and have been wild for 50 years or more. They number many thousands and are killing the young turtles and eating the eggs by the hundreds. No account has been shown of their danger to man though we consider them one of our greatest and most demanding problems.

Thousands of previously domestic dogs, cats, cattle, pigs, donkeys and horses run wild on the larger islands. 75,000 head of cattle are said to be on Isabela now.

Isabela presents a very wierd and arid appearance from seaward and few people have gone inland to where heavy vegetation makes a very inviting sight. Volcanic ash and rocks are all that can be seen from seaward, giving rise to such enticing names as “THE ASH HEAP,” WORLD'S END and the HAUNTED ISLANDS. Almost no water flows to the sea from the uplands as a pumice area at about 800 feet absorbs the water. It is said that springs pop up promiscuously all over the island and disappear just as promiscuously, giving rise to the idea that there is an underground lake on the island.

The vegetation can be said to be the same as one might find in any tropical area. Such things as large ferns, sunflower trees, etc.

Galápagos Map in brochure, with island names rewritten for clarity.—JW.

Plans and Equipment

The Galapagos Islands have suffered much from the lack of adequate transportation. No one single factor has held back progress more. We are so fully convinced of this that we would not consider going to the islands without our own ship.

The ship we buy shall be over 200 feet, with a cargo capacity of 1,200 tons. Several are under negotiations at this time. There are other equally good reasons for having one or more ships. A ship can be bought for less than it would cost to ship us all down there, also not only will the ship give us good transportation for our own crops, but we can put it to work in contract freight. Therefore it will give us our initial means of support.

Fishing is to be one of our main sources of revenue and therefore refrigerated and cannery-equipped ships are being considered seriously. Shortly we expect to acquire a small ship of about 100 feet to send our first group of people to the islands. About 25 are expected to go at first.

Before they depart, a PBY airplane will be purchased to send a group of scientists to the islands. They will give us such information as where to land, where to live, soil samples, nearest water, etc. These men will be down there about two weeks. Some of our members will go with them and remain behind at the point chosen for our landing.

The scientists on this pilot crew will have their expenses paid by us but they shall donate their time. Much valuable information will be ours from their trip, plus even more important, good publicity.

We have had some publicity in Seattle and some in Ecuador. Much good has come from it. However, we need all we can get. The story we have here is so unique and has so much human interest that a good writer culd keep it going for years. We hope to take advantage of this since the better known we are the better will be our chances of success. As our company name and products become widely known, a market will become available to us that would normally require many years to build up, not to mention much money.

The first group will have equipment for purifying salt water, diesel generators, portable refrigeration units, plus all the farm and construction equipment the ship will hold. This small ship will remain with them together with a small airplane.

We are at this time engaged in negotiations for land on Isabela Island and this land upwards of 20,000 acres is forthcoming very soon.

Cartago Bay on the east side of Isabela just north of the large part as shown on the map, seems to be the place to establish residence. About 30 miles away and just north of Santa Cruz is a small island known as Seymour. The United States had an air base [during WWII—JW.] and we expect to acquire lumber from the building there which is available to all islanders.

Our research shows that about a year ago much of this lumber was still there. Our pilot crew will determine if this lumber is still available. If so, temporary dwellings can be built from them in very short order. If it is not still available, building material must be purchased in Guayaquil. A very good house can be built for about $800.

Piping water in, drilling wells, building residences, clearing land, herding cattle and planting will be the order of the day.

Overall plans will be much like this.
2,000 acres in row crops,
Coffee growing about $800 an acre, requires four years for first crop and produces for about 15 years,
Cacao (cocoa) growing about $1,500 an acre, requires four years for the first crop and produces for 100 years.

Sugar and pineapple are also very lucrative. All crops grow profusely in the uplands and 2 or 3 crops a year can be had from some of them.

Cattle will be another of our major enterprises; 75,000 head are said to be roaming the hills on Isabela Island now. Cattle get a good price in Guayaquil. Our ship shall within two weeks after arrival depart with a load of frozen beef.

Marine activities will require 25% of our members or more, between fishing, canning, marine freight charter, and taking care of our own freight needs, the marine department will be very busy. The waters around the islands abound with crayfish much the same as the California lobster. The market for this fish though new, is very promising. Tuna of course had a good market.

Air freight—Let us not forget the PBY. It is expected to do very well.

Markets for charter of the ship and airplane are now being sought.

BIOLOGY — Which we intend to spend much money on, will actually be combined with many things. It may be better to say research in the fields of the natural sciences. Any scientist who wishes to apply to us with a hypothesis of his own can apply for use of our laboratory facilities. He should apply to us through our consultant scientists, and they will determine the feasability of all proposals and forward their finding to us. All the hypotheses chosen as above will then be presented to our stock holders, who will in turn vote to determine, whom or what we shall support. We expect to spend about a million dollars a year on research but this budget will also be voted on, and will differ from year to year. Not only will we benefit through culture, education and health from their research, but we will gain financially as well by selling biology specimens to zoologists the world around. Specimens are available in the Galapagos that are available nowhere else. Our markets in this field are very good and contacts in it are being made now.

Major problems as seen at this time are;

Wild Dogs: Research is being made at this time to establish the best means of their extermination.

Insects: The same can be said of them, except we anticipate no danger, only annoyance. There are no poisonous insects known to us.

Sanitation, water and housing are also being considered as major problems, and answers to them are being sought.

SOCIAL PROBLEMS we feel, are the only ones that could have a chance of causing failure of our company. Three things seem to us of utmost importance in this the most critical of all problems.

  1. To have as many families as possible. This gives us people who feel responsibility. Therefore they will be happier and more stable.
  2. To keep a balance of the sexes.
  3. A oneness in philosophy and intent among all concerned.

All attempts are being made to solve the above three problems. The advice of the best experts is being sought from both psychologists and sociologists.

The potentials of the islands are as good or better than anywhere. Only hard work and compatability is required to make our company financially, socially and culturally successful.

CORPORATE LAWS: The corporate laws will not be included in this brochure as it is company business. Briefly though, this is our intent. 100 shares shall be sold, each share shall require of the purchaser to work for the company and will entitle the holder to one vote. The net profit shall be split up thus: 50% will be split equally among the stock holders, the other 50% will be split up in accordance to the individual's job. The pay scale range from the lowest to the highest will be about 25%. A scientific and reserve fund will be taken out before shares are paid. A company structure chart will be found later in this brochure and will show that we have a complete community wanting for little in knowledge (the lab crew, an estimated 20, is not included in the chart). This of course makes it very cheap for us to maintain ourselves. No member of the company needs more than about $300 besides enough money to buy his share, the company supports in all ways all share holders and their families (except for personal items).

Structure of Co-op

PresidentIn charge of business promotions
Vice PresidentPublic Relations and correspondence
Secretary, TreasurerPersonel and monies
Chief ForemanPersonel and Planning
Crop ForemanAgriculture, Planting and Marketing
Livestock ForemanCattle and swine, breeding and marketing
TeachersThere will be four, covering all grades through high school
Bookkeeper & AccountantBooks and Statements
Medical DoctorOne or two
Marine ForemanMarine activities, importing and exporting
Building & Maintenance ForemanEngineering and supervising of Ship's crew
Ship's crewMaster, First Mate, Second Mate, Chief Engineer, 6 deck hands, 3 oilers, 1 cook, 1 messman
 9 men skilled in diversified marine activities; fishing, canning, freight, etc.
ConstructionThere will be 10 men skilled in all phases (carpenters, cement workers, bricklayers, water and sewer works)
Crops25 men experienced in all phases of agriculture
MaintenanceMachinists, mechanics, tool & die makers, electricians, 3 men with all qualifications
Airline Pilot and crew3 men
Livestock Foreman and crew14 men
Food Handling3 men, refrigeration mechanic, butcher, storekeeper

Plus our experimental lab crew of 20 or more in the field of biology and other of the natural sciences.

Notes on Ecuador

A republic of South America located in the northwest section of the continent, bordering the Pacific Ocean between Colombia and Peru. It includes the Galapagos Islands. The population is about one and a half million. The low Pacific Coast strip west of the Andes Mountain range averages about 80 miles in width. The region east of the mountains is the Amazon region, rainy, forested, mostly uninhabited and still being explored

The Andes range running through Ecuador is narrow but high. In the center is the inter-Andean plateau with an average height of 8,000 feet. Fertile and temperate in climate, the plateau contains the bulk of the population. Though Ecuador lies on the equator, the climate varies with the altitude, from tropical to arctic.

The language is Spanish, although the Indians in the rural areas speak Quechua, the original language of the Incas.

All schools are under the jurisdiction of the Minister of Public Instruction and education is free and compulsory.

The government of Ecuador is very similar to that of our own country, with the equivalent of senators and representatives. They are elected by the people of the province of which they reside.

The Ecuadorian Government has been stable for over 20 years and in that short time they have made tremendous strides forward. So much so are they aware of the further need for progress that they have opened up many thousands of acres to colonists from abroad, especially are they interested in North Americans. Though they are by far not a rich country, they will do much to help immigrants to get a start.

Immigrants (which we will be) have the same rights as citizens, except they cannot vote.

The natural resources of the country are almost untouched, there are opportunities galore for anyone with a desire to get ahead and is not afraid of work. Land is free to anyone who can work it and the Government of Ecuador upholds the rights of all citizens or aliens.